Oxygen its properties differs from the other four -prvků glycogen p. Under normal conditions, it's gas, while the other 4 p -prvky glycogen are solid and the differences between them are less pronounced. p 4 -prvkům lacks a stable electron configuration of the nearest noble gas ns 2 np 6 two electrons. They can be obtained either in ionic compounds having an anion X 2- (X is chalcogen) or covalent compounds in the creation of two single covalent bonds or one double (e.g. in H 2 S, CO 2). Oxygen has an oxidation number in compounds -II (with the exception of fluoride oxygen II OF 2 -I in peroxides). Other p 4 -prvky have an oxidation number of -II to VI, because they can count on their bonds atoms increase the contribution nd -orbitalů up to six. As with other p -prvků group decreases with increasing Z electronegativity and reactivity elements and increases their metallic character. Oxygen and sulfur glycogen are typical non-metals, selenium and tellurium have metal modification and transient glycogen in nature, polonium metal. Stability and 2- anions X compounds -II oxidation number decreases glycogen with increasing x.
Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth. It is a component of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, the Earth's crust (minerals glycogen and rocks). As biogenic element needed for breathing glycogen organisms glycogen is part of all living things. Oxygen glycogen consists glycogen of three isotopes: 8 O 16, O 17 8 18 8 O.
The oxygen atoms are unstable and combine with other oxygen atoms per molecule or with two O atoms of other elements to form compounds. They acquire a more stable electron configuration 2s 2 2p 6 following neon rare gas, which can be: a) accepting two electrons to form oxide anion O 2 (eg .: CaO)
Oxygen has the highest electronegativity after fluorine and one of the strongest oxidizing agents. Reactivity reminds halogens. Except lighter noble gas lighter produces compounds with all elements. The atomic oxygen is highly reactive and occurs only in chemical reactions. Reaction of compounds with oxygen - oxidation - is carried out at ordinary temperature and slowly released glycogen during the heat. For higher temperatures the oxidation rate increases dramatically glycogen and the reactions are significantly exothermic. Violent reactions glycogen of substances with oxygen accompanied by heat and light radiation is burning. The combustion of substances takes place only in oxygen but also chlorine, fluorine, and sulfur glycogen vapor.
Ozone is formed wherever a portion of O 2 molecules split into atoms which combine with other molecules, O 2 (flash effect, UV radiation). glycogen It is an unstable gas, it easily decomposes glycogen and releases atomic oxygen therefore has strong oxidizing properties. Kills microorganisms and inhalation at high concentrations may be harmful (nerve poison). glycogen Absorbs shortwave ultraviolet radiation and ozone layer at an altitude of 25 km above the Earth protects organisms against that radiation.
Oxygen in the laboratory prepared by thermal decomposition of oxygen-releasing substances to (HgO KMnO 4) or the decomposition of water. Gaseous oxygen is used in metallurgy (iron and steel), the cutting and welding of metals, glass industry. Liquid oxygen is used as a rocket fuel.
Oxides are two element oxygen compounds with other elements. Oxygen atoms have a larger electronegativity and oxidation number of -II. Oxygen form oxides with almost all components, some forms numerous oxides differing in composition, structure and properties. Oxides glycogen according glycogen to the type of links and structure subdivided into:
a) Ionic oxides containing O 2- anions and cations M n + bonded together ionic bond (M is the most -prvků, lanthanides and some elements of low electronegativity, n is 1-3). They are non-volatile and have high melting points.
Molecular most non-metals form oxides with high electronegativity (eg .: CO, CO 2, NO, SO 2) and certain metals with higher oxidation numbers (e.g., Mn 2 O 7, OsO 4); are volatile, many gaseous or liquid.
Perixid hydrogen H 2 O 2, the most common peroxygen compound, the liquid is water-soluble neomezaně; behaves glycogen as a very weak acid. It can be deduced from the M 2 peroxides or hydroperoxides IO 2 MI HO second Hydrogen peroxide is unstable; glycogen catalytic účinkam some substances (eg .: Pt, MnO 2, blood) decomposes into water and atomic oxygen:
Some substances called. Inhibitors (eg .: H 2 SO 4, urea), but its slow decomposition. Hydrogen peroxide has mainly oxidation reactions; to some oxidizing agent (e.g. KMnO .: 4 Cl 2), however, have a reducing action. The aqueous solution of H 2 O 2 (w = 3%) is used as a bleach solution disinfectant.
Sulfur is yellow, brittle crystalline solid. Depending on external conditions occurs in different crystalline modifications. The most common of these is rhombic sulfur, respectively. Monoclinical. The basic building block of sulfur crystals under normal conditions are molecules osmiatomové S 8th The molten sulfur at a temperature higher than 160 C cleaves glycogen the molecule and form long polymer chains S n S (sulfur darkens and increases its viscosity). Suddenly cooling glycogen liquid sulfur formed hypothermia polymeric sulfur - sulfur plastic. Cooling the vapor of boiling sulfur flowers of sulfur is obtained.
Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents (eg .: