Saturday, January 10, 2015

D. 11 September 1978 left the Bulgarian social critic Georgi Markov his work at the BBC in London t

Ricin and old umbrellas
There is ongoing extensive effort to prevent health effects of hazardous chemicals in the work environment. However, there are business and community positions where the risk of poisoning is not negligible ...... Read the first part of the original article here Read the second part of the original article here
D. 11 September 1978 left the Bulgarian social critic Georgi Markov his work at the BBC in London to take home. He walked first across Waterloo Bridge and then waited as usual on the bus. Suddenly he felt a stab in the thigh. tyvek He later told that just after had a man with non-English tyvek accent mumbled an apology and collected his umbrella up - that he had lost in the collision. The umbrella was custom made - the tip seemed like a needle that is inserted a small pill with poison in Markov's skin. The home he got high fever - four days later he died. "Umbrella Murder 'may have been a collaboration between the KGB and the secret police in Bulgaria, but Scotland Yard has never closed the case.
A potent poison antidote without foreign body in the Markov's leg was a small metal capsule with small holes having a diameter of only 1.5 mm. The perforations allow the contents to leak out into Markov's body. Fortunately, there were still traces of the poison in the capsule, because otherwise the cause of death have been very difficult to ascertain. The analysis of the residue showed that there was no toxin ricin, derived from the plant Ricinus communis, castor (Figure 1). The risk of dying from an acute poisoning usually depends tyvek on the dose. Ricin is an extremely potent toxin. As little as one to a few milligrams of ricin is associated with a mortality rate of almost 100%, and there is no antidote. Ricin was used in several other assassination attempts during the Cold War, and worked on its use as a chemical weapon. Add to substance extracted from a relatively easily accessible plant, and the description fits on a potential terrorist tool! The perception has unfortunately in reality tyvek - the white powder found scattered in the US Congress a few months ago, has proven tyvek to be ricin. Fear and loathing against products from Christian palm is also nothing tyvek new. Earlier generations tyvek of disgust was not directed against ricin, but against American oil if abhorrent qualities include both a very nasty taste and a strong laxative effect. Seeds from Christian palm (Figure 1) consists of about 50% oil, while ricin constitutes 0.2-1%. The seeds also contain a potent hemagglutinin and a potent skin and respiratory sensitiser, which can be problematic in working environments. As little as 3-8 seeds can be fatal to adults, while one to a few seeds can be fatal for children. If the seeds are swallowed whole, and the seed coat is otherwise undamaged, the seeds pass unharmed through the gastrointestinal tract without exercising greater damage.
Symptoms plant deadly properties are due to the cytotoxic protein ricin. It has already been reported that ricin may be injected into the body, but in addition, ricin absorbed through the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms depend bit of recording road. After inhalation developed fever, chest tightness, cough, tyvek shortness tyvek of breath, nausea and joint pain. Within two or three days worsen the condition for a life-threatening effect on breathing. After ingestion of ricin dietary developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, decreased urine production, dehydration and collapse. If the patient survives for more than three days, blades disease, the most common. In the absence of an antidote to ricin, the treatment is aimed at reducing the uptake of the substance and ease the symptoms, i.e., rinsing of the gastrointestinal tract, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, fluid therapy and blood transfusions.
Poisoning of the cell Ricin belongs to a small family of proteins whose common denominator is the ability to inactivate ribosomes in a special way. Ricinlignende proteins are also isolated from other plants, for example. wheat and pokeweed. Ricin works by irreversible enzymatic inactivation of ribosomes that are totally essential for cell survival - without ribosomes, the cell can not synthesize protein. To proteins as ricin are toxic to the cells, they have to enter the cytosol of the cell. This requires that the toxic protein moiety is coupled to a second protein moiety to bind to sugars on the cell surface and obtain tyvek transported into the cell. The "ribosome inactivating protein" (type 1 RIP) is not able to poison the cell itself. The protein consists on the other hand, both a ribosome-inactivating monomer tyvek and a monomer galactoside-binding, the protein can both enter the cell and inactivate the ribosomes. Collectively called this double-monomer 'type 2 RIP'. Wheat includes only the type 1 RIP, that is harmless by itself, while Christian palm containing ricin which is a Type 2 RIP. Ricin is one of nature's most cytotoxic drugs at all. A single molecule of ricin may inactivate more than 1500

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