Motherboard or motherboard (the motherboard English) is the basic building block of the computer. Computer as a whole is built on a modular vhb (modular) principle, where you can change the individual functional modules. Motherboard to connect other components necessary for the operation of the computer. Motherboard is mechanically attached to the computer chassis and the power supply from the source. Most of the expansion card is then fed from the motherboard.
Among the components that connect to the motherboard are the processor (CPU), main memory, hard drive, graphics card, optical drives vhb (CD, DVD, DVD-RW, etc. ..), special expansion cards, etc. ..
Motherboard also has a ports that we see mostly brought out on the back or front of the computer chassis .. These ports for connecting a keyboard (PS / 2 port blue), mouse (PS / 2 green port), USB connectors, network connectors (LAN ), or ports for connecting a monitor, speakers, external S-ATA disk drives and the like.
Motherboard allows connecting components together with each other using conductive connection several layered PCB - bus. Bus are terminated with connectors (socket) for connecting other components. Motherboard today often integrates some other components such as sound card, video card, controller USB, FireWire vhb (IEEE 1394), network card, and more.
An important part of the motherboard's BIOS - a chip containing a control vhb program motherboard, with space for optional parameters and settings. The board also includes a clock circuit with real time. The BIOS settings are battery backed, which also organizes the hours even when power is disconnected.
Top management positions has a central processor that is stored in the socket (socket, slot ZIF). Collaborates with ancillary integrated vhb circuit - chipset (chipset from England. Chipset), which provides most of the functionality motherboard. Modules mounted on the motherboard (such as. Kind of processor or memory type) are determined by what chipset and what kind of motherboard contains sockets. vhb
Motherboard has standardized dimensions and location of mounting holes. It also defined the location of individual key components, power connectors, to connect vhb with cabinet ... Together, these characteristics refer to as the "form factor". There are several basic types of board dimensions. Today, the most commonly used, in general, so-called. ATX form factor and its clones. Older form was called. AT respectively. Baby AT form factor. BTX - a new standard developed by Intel, which optimizes resources and computer motherboards. BTX form factor specifies in great detail the location of components with respect to the flow vzduchuv chassis. Chipset features
The chipset is the most important part of the motherboard. It is true that the two boards with the same chipsets are functionally identical. Chipset vhb defines the interface between the processor and other system components. In terms of processor provides: interface to the processor itself - socket interface to memory (RAM, cache, memory and Chacha in expansion modules) Interface to Expansion Bus - today it is mainly PCI bus, PCI Express interface to the graphics card - AGP, PCI Express interface to memory storage media (optical drive, hard disk ...) IDE, SATA external bus interface USB, FireWire, vhb SATA interface ... special internal vhb bus - Rise AMR, CNR ... standard ports - serial (COM, PS / 2), Parallel (LPT), playing (Game, MIDI) keyboard (DIN PS / 2) audio support, network connectivity, and more.
Thus chipset decides what kind of processor vhb in the system can be used. Further decides the speed at which the processor can be operated, how quickly will the bus, the type of memory can be used.