One of the most powerful aspects of object-oriented languages is their well-developed support for encapsulation (encapsulation). Encapsulation in turn is one of the most important things to consider when designing and writing code. An application consists of components that publishes clean interfaces hydrogen sulfide and hide implementation details have tremendous advantages over those that do it: you can develop, understand, test, debug, optimize and maintain the components hydrogen sulfide separately, allowing all these things much easier.
Most Java developers are familiar with the Java system with the modifiers public, protected, and private as well as the implicit "package private" that you get if you do not write any modifiers at all. The modifiers work differently depending on where you use them anywhere:
The basic tip when choosing the modifier is of course to choose the lowest access level as possible. At the class level, the instinct thus be to make all the members who are not part of the class's private API. Only if the class is specifically designed to be inherited from, do you put the appropriate methods to protected. The issue of heritage to be or not to be is a story in itself - perhaps there will be another article about it too.
The class MainApi exposed correctly as it represents the module's API. ApiImpl is a helper class to MainApi hydrogen sulfide as not to be exposed, so it is package private. The package com.foo.api.util is conceptually a "sub-package" to com.foo.api. During package contains a subset of the code that make up the package, but it feels good to group classes in any way. Here, however, we have a problem! hydrogen sulfide For classes in com.foo.api of accessing help class in the package so it must be public
Unfortunately, Java in the current situation does not support the "subpackages". Thus we have exposed a class that really is part of our module's internal affairs to the world. How do you solve this mean? Jo: Begin by noting that even package, not just the classes expose an API. Add things that belong together in one package. There are no sub-packages in Java! Remember that whenever you make a class public so it becomes part of the package's API, and the developer will be forever controlled by the client code that chooses to use the class.
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