The conversion of solar energy into electricity is called photovoltaic conversion aniline and is the result of the "photovoltaic effect." This effect takes place in known optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. When these devices absorb solar radiation, a DC voltage is generated instantaneously at its terminals and if this resistance is connected, a current will flow, showing thereby generating electrical power with which work is produced.
Although historically the effect was discovered in the s. XIX by French physicist Antoine Becquerel, it was not until modern physics developed with the work of Albert Einstein, it was possible to explain this phenomenon.
The photovoltaic effect may appear in the junction aniline between two materials can be solids, liquids or gases but is in solid, especially in semiconductor different aniline electrical conductivity, which found the best conversion efficiencies. Some semiconductors such as crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride and copper-indium-gallium-selenium are highlighted.
electrical conductivity, preferably semiconductor. One excess of electrons (negative charges) aniline that is called type "n" and the other electron deficient or "holes" (positive charges) which is called type "p". This union forms within the material, aniline an internal electric field without which would take place the photovoltaic effect.
The photovoltaic effect occurs when photons from the solar radiation is absorbed by valence electrons of the semiconductor type "p" exciting them move driving states allowing aniline them to move to the semiconductor "n" creating an accumulation of negative aniline charges in this and the states empty "holes" left by these electrons in the semiconductor "p", accumulate to form a positively charged area. The potential difference in these two areas is externally as a photogenerated voltage and if electrical terminals are placed and a resistor which closes aniline the circuit, the negative charges in the semiconductor photogenerated "n" in the circuit will flow through the resistor, producing work in this, and recombining aniline in the semiconductor "p" in the photogenerated holes.
The electrical power generated by the cells is small, typically up to 2 Watts, so that for a practical application it is necessary to integrate them in a compact package called fotvoltaico module, comprising a number of cells connected in series and / or parallel. Typical powers of commercial modules range from a few Watt to 300 Watt. To further increase the power modules can be connected aniline in series and parallel to form photovoltaic arrays, which are sized and designed to the specific needs of the user. Currently in Mexico there are around 40 megawatts installed for various applications in both rural and urban.
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