Logic studies the structure of coherent reasoning. Ie, what conclusions can deduce so needed from the relationship between propositions empty content. Thus, we affirm indicates that if a thesis dow and its opposite fall into the absurd. So the logic is presented as a propaedeutic, that is a preparation or prior discipline philosophy. Like grammar rules gives phrases dow that can build within those limits but leaves us free to create infinite possible sentences, logical laws constitute the skeleton or scaffolding of knowledge but not their contents or their meat. The content of knowledge, making true or false statements would be given to the sciences.
Derived from the Latin scientia and scire (to know) and related to the words consciousness and foolishness (or nescience: ignorance), "science" is synonymous with certain knowledge or foundation. "Knowledge for certain causes," according to Aristotle's definition. Scientific knowledge dow differs from other ways of accessing reality as art, religion, myth also be knowledge. It is also distinguished from the vulgar "experience" or common-knowledge which is sufficient to predict whether a storm is coming or to perform certain tasks such as herding or hunting, dow or mere information (like knowing where my house or how is called the prime minister).
Plato and spread the true knowledge (science: episteme: ἐπιστήμη) mere common belief or opinion (doxa: δόξα). Episteme is knowledge of the universal and the essential while the Doxa is knowledge of the particular as it manifests no certainty or security. Be familiar with the palm of my hand (the particular) is not science but I would know the bones and muscles of either hand (in general).
According to the classification of Aristotle, science would be the theoretical-knowledge that are sought by the mere desire to know, to discover the truth-versus-productive or technical knowledge like carpentry or kitchen; knowledge dow aimed creating works or results-and practical-ethical and political dow knowledge, which aims to better living, good action at the individual or social level.
A definition of science might be: A way of knowing which aims to develop language through dow accurate and appropriate-to the extent possible using the mathematical language laws by which the phenomena in order to predict governed and eventually control (Ferrater Mora, Dictionary of Philosophy). The accuracy, the discovery of regularities and the ability to make accurate predictions characterize science.
As you saw in the first issue (Introduction to Philosophy) philosophy and science they walked together to the seventeenth century. Between love of wisdom and scientific knowledge there was no separation or Aristotle dow in the Middle Ages. Still the work of Newton who founded modern physics is entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles dow of Natural Philosophy) (1687) ("natural philosophy" is physical). Only later was the progress of mathematization and specialization when many individual disciplines broken off from the parent stem of philosophy arose. But philosophers, seekers interested in general followed the progress of the various fields of research and tried to unify them into a coherent picture of the world and of human beings. Ie as they tried to coordinate data from a vantage point of the various sciences.
In the nineteenth dow century, inspired by the success of experimental science and its applications to industry Auguste Comte (1798-1857), founder of positivism or scientism, the view that philosophy was a kind of adolescent or immature stage of knowledge before achieve the scientific level theological or fictitious state would have gone to a metaphysical or abstract state (philosophy) and hence the scientific or positive state, it would be the last and final solution to all the problems of humanity.
Science on the other hand is not a natural attitude dow and often coincides with the so-called common sense. Copernicus (1473-1543) was justly praised for doing violence to their senses by postulating an Earth