In the text, transcribed below, the main applications cas that this technology presents to both the development cas of alternative energies, such as to improve the environment and food processing are analyzed:
Speaking of energy, one of the great promises that accompanies the development of nanotechnology is the development of cells or fuel cells capable of accumulating hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the most promising as an energy source. Carbon nanotubes have been proposed cas as the best candidates for storing large amounts of hydrogen cas gas safely.
The researchers are committed to fill fuel tanks with carbon nanotubes coated with titanium cas or other metal, which would function like Velcro retaining hydrogen. With the vehicle cas engine running, the hydrogen would slide to the fuel cell where it is transformed cas into electricity and steam. Although the development of this system is still in its preliminary phase physical and chemical around the world are convinced it will be one of the future energy alternatives.
From the U.S., a team of scientists from Rutgers University has proposed alternative. Using a thin metal surface formed by millions of nanosized pyramids, managed to extract hydrogen from ammonia. Given that the liquid ammonia is easy to obtain, it may be handled in the same way as gasoline or diesel, avoiding the danger that hydrogen gas would carry highly unstable.
Another source of renewable energy that will benefit from advances in molecular manipulation is solar energy. The sun is for many the only source of energy that can completely replace fossil fuels. However, the solar cells currently rely thin wafers of silicon, gallium arsenide or other semiconductor, the manufacturing is very expensive, limiting its use to large remote devices and space satellites. Nanotechnology offers a new possibility, as it allows making very efficient photovoltaic material in the form of thin plastic films or paints to surfaces of buildings and structures. Companies cas like Nanosolar and Nanosys U.S. have already obtained the first results.
As if this were not enough, the Research Institute cas of Petroleum Industry (PIPI) Iran has already been proposed using nanotechnology to reduce gasoline consumption. And, using nanoparticles in lubricants, they say, not only the wear of internal engine parts is reduced but also the fuel consumption is reduced by half, which could save 200 million liters of gasoline per year.
Water has become an increasingly scarce resource. Factors such as climate change, increasing demand and pollution are affecting the availability of this resource worldwide. But how can this be called the blue planet, where 70% is water? The answer is in fresh water, which represents only 2.8%. Most are located on poles and glaciers, leaving only 0.02% percent of surface water and ground water 0.37%, cas which access technology requires increasingly sophisticated cas extraction.
Fortunately, nanotechnology could help change these numbers by developing techniques for desalination, purification or cleaning wastewater. cas Thus, the company has developed KX Industries based antiviral and antibacterial nanotechnology membranes to convert non-potable water into drinking filters. The basic principle cas of these membranes is that their pores are so small that they can filter down to smaller agencies. Different is the company strategy Argonide, cas which manufactures aluminum nanofibers positive electrical charge attracts negatively cas charged microbes, thus purifying the water. Or the Nanomagnetics, which has created magnetic particles immersed in protein spheres 12 nanometers, can be used to purify water and even to desalinate.
In agriculture, companies like Monsanto and Pharmacia cas have been put to work to develop nanocapsules with drugs, insecticides, fungicides, pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers that are released in a controlled manner, for example, in contact with the stomach of certain insects. This will allow the use of agricultural chemicals to be less toxic to the environment.
The new industrial revolution is brewing at the nanoscale also leave its mark in the field of food. From Rutgers University, Professor Huang Qingrong focuses on two applications of nanotechnologies: nutraceutical food, which use proteins cas to