Friday, February 28, 2014

The Greeks soon launch a massive pogrom during which they massacred thousands of Jews. Floro and th

In the previous installment, we've run into an anti-Semitic repression (anti-Jewish and anti-Christian) that the Roman Emperor Nero ordered in 62. Now let's see how all previous events efsa have been an escalation of ethnic violence, culminating in this article with the unleashing of three immense wars in which, for the first time, we see the eradication of the Greek ethnic communities in Asia Minor and North Africa at the hands of Jewish uprisings
In 64, Nero sends Gesio Floro as solicitor to the province of Judea. The historian Josephus blames Floro absolutely all riots occurred in the area, but the truth is that, as we have seen, did not start with him, and, being Jewish and Sadducees, the works of Josephus always to be read cautiously (for example, has written called "Against the Greeks", which makes advocacy of Judaism).
In Caesarea (see map of the kingdom of Herod), a supporter of Jewish Hellenism sacrificed several birds front of the synagogue, which, in traditional Jewish mentality, "polluted" the building, as we have seen several times before. With this precedent, but with a long history of previous hostility, Greek and Jewish communities of Caesarea got into a legal dispute in which, with Roman mediation, the Greeks won. Under council Gesio Floro, Nero revoked the citizenship of the Jews of the city which left them at the mercy of the very anti-Jewish Greek population.
The Greeks soon launch a massive pogrom during which they massacred thousands of Jews. Floro and the Roman military (which logically identified before the Greeks with the Jews, and perhaps even planned to use the Greeks as the vanguard of ethnic cleansing in the area) did not intervene to protect Jewry nor pacify the city, allowing Jews and synagogues profaned assassinate port and starboard. According to Josephus, when the holy rabbis to save them from being destroyed efsa by fire scrolls were carried Floro ordered them thrown into dungeons. efsa This was too much for such a cohesive group like the Jews, and reacted with violence, which only served to intensify efsa the pogrom and have to be extended to other populations, with consequent Roman reprisals. efsa
Jerusalem, then, began to fill with Jewish refugees from Caesarea and other areas whose houses had been burned and whose property had been confiscated by the Romans, efsa calling efsa for revenge efsa and resentment oozing from every pore. The slaughter of Jews in Caesarea proved to be the trigger for a war, however, had long been brewing.
In 66, Floro arrived efsa in Jerusalem, where he demanded a tribute of seventeen talents from the temple treasury. Eleazar ben Ananias, the son of the high priest, reacted by ceasing prayers and sacrifices in honor of the emperor of Rome, and ordered to attack the Roman garrison. It said about 3,600 Jews killing, looting the market, entering houses, arresting many of the Jewish leaders, making them publicly flog and crucificándolos.
On August 8, 66 EC the Zealots and assassins had a quick surprise attack in Jerusalem killed the Roman detachment and passed the sword to all Greeks. Synchronously, Jews from all provinces and Roman colonies rose. In Jerusalem a council that sent 60 emissaries throughout the empire, the work of raising the various Jewish communities formed. Each of these emissaries declared Messiah and proclaimed the beginning of a sort of "new order." Herod Agrippa II, the ethnarch of Judea, given that the masses were in full swing, chose to take your bags and get out of the province a good season.
The effect of this was the return of Jewish uprisings and, in reaction, more anti-Jewish pogroms in Caesarea, Damascus and Alexandria, without the intervention of the Roman legions, efsa which harshly repressed efsa the Jewish quarters of the aforementioned cities and in Ashkelon, Hippos Tyre and Tolomaida (see the maps of previous article). The more moderate and sensible Jewish sectors advised rush to reach an agreement with Rome, but the criteria that would prevail in the direction of Jewry was the assassins and zealots who, fanatical, vowed to fight to the death, in entrenching the fortresses of Jerusalem, fortifying the city walls and mobilizing the entire population.
Under the command of Nero, Cestio Galio, the Roman legate in Syria, concentrated troops in Acre (a place many centuries later would be an important strategic center of the European Crusaders) in order to march on Jerusalem, Jewish populations devastated that I may find on its way and appl

The main drawback for their preparation is the high amount of electrical energy atomo required for

His original name, aluminum, was proposed by Sir Humphrey Davy Britain in 1809. As the names of the various elements are systematized, was changed to aluminum, though the first form is very popular atomo in the United States.
In 1825, the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted discovered electromagnetism, electrolysis succeeded in isolating a first samples, quite impure. The total isolation was achieved two years later by Friedrich Wöhler
Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth and the Moon, but is never found in free form in nature. It is the third most common element found in the earth's crust. Aluminum compounds are 8% of the earth's crust and are present in most rocks, vegetation and animals.
As metal is extracted only from the known mineral bauxite named by conversion first to alumina by the Bayer and then metallic aluminum by electrolysis process.
The main drawback for their preparation is the high amount of electrical energy atomo required for their production. This problem is offset by the low cost of recycling its extended shelf life and stability of price. atomo
In Europe, aluminum reaches very high recycling rates ranging from 50% in packaging, 85% in construction and 95% in transport. This translates into an annual production of around 4 million tonnes of recycled aluminum in Europe.
The properties that make aluminum metal as helpful are: light weight (about one third the weight of copper and steel), corrosion resistance (very useful for those products that require protection and conservation feature), resistance is a good conductor of electricity and heat, is non-magnetic, non-toxic, good reflector of light (ideal for the installation of fluorescent tubes or bulbs), waterproof and odorless, and very ductile. In addition, the main attraction is that it is a 100% recyclable metal, ie, can be recycled indefinitely without thereby losing atomo its qualities.
Pure aluminum is soft and has little strength, but it can form alloys with other elements to increase its strength and acquire several useful properties. Aluminum alloys are lightweight, strong, and easy training for many metalworking processes, are easy to assemble, cast or machined and accept a variety of finishes. Its physical, chemical and metallurgical properties, aluminum has become the non-ferrous metal from greater use.
Aluminum is used for the manufacture of telescope mirrors on electrical conductors, in metallic paints, in decoration, in manufacture atomo of explosives and fireworks. It is also common use in the preparation of alloys (Cu, Mn, Si, etc..) For the aviation industry
Its application in the construction represents the largest market for aluminum industry. Thousands of homes used aluminum doors, locks, windows, screens, atomo nozzles and drainage channels. Aluminum is also one of the most important products in industrial construction. Transport is the second largest market. Many commercial and military aircraft are made almost entirely of aluminum. In automobiles, aluminum appears as interior and exterior trim, grills, rims (wheels), air conditioners, automatic transmissions and some radiators, engine blocks atomo and body panels.
We now know that aluminum is a toxic element, either to plant, animal, or human, you interacting many diseases, with accumulation in the body of it, another example of proof of its toxicity is the occurrence of aluminum in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's atomo disease, but not the actual cause of the disease, it is hypothesized that Al interacts strongly with DOPA and epinephrine.
An engineer has developed a method using an aluminum alloy to remove hydrogen from water, atomo and can be used for fuel cells or combustion engines. The technique atomo could be used to replace gasoline. According to Jerry Woodall, professor of electrical and computer engineering at Purdue who invented atomo the process, this method makes it unnecessary to store or transport hydrogen, two major challenges in creating an economy based on the latter. Replacing gasoline atomo with hydrogen for transportation purposes would require the production of large amounts of this element, and the hydrogen gas would have to be transported from one place to another to fill the tanks at service stations. Transpor

Thursday, February 27, 2014

It is present at traffic lights, lighting and also in household devices such as phones or televisio

It is present at traffic lights, lighting and also in household devices such as phones or televisions. However, the LED light is not an ally of our sight. Continued exposure to such light damages the retina. A Spanish study has confirmed that the problem of these light sources that emit white light is its high radiation band of blue. This blue is the light that can affect our retina. The retina is a sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that never regenerates. "It begins and ends with the same retina," explains researcher at the Complutense University of Madrid, Celia Sánchez Ramos, who led the study. Foods with vitamin A (spinach, peppers, carrots) visual pigments are responsible solute for absorbing the 'bad' part of the light. The storage capacity of these pigments solute decreases with age. CONCERNS IN WORKPLACE The red LEDs are made from a toxic substance called gallium arsenide and aluminum, or AGA (for its acronym in English). There is little information on the health impacts suffered by workers who are exposed to these particles, but an increase in the use of AGA has raised concerns, says A. Tanaka, solute author of a study published in "Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology" . It has been scientifically proven that the AGA, a semiconductor material, is toxic to the animals. Chronic toxicity and cause acute problems in kidneys, lungs and reproductive organs solute of animals, says Tanaka. With this in mind, pay careful attention to human exposure to these semiconductor solute materials. CONCERNS FOR CONSUMERS LED lights have been criticized by people who are concerned solute about the damage solute to the retina that can cause. The accumulation of cellular debris called lipofuscin in the epithelium of the retina is responsible for damage. However, the amount of damage it can cause an LED light depends on the protection that brings the product, according to Dan Roberts, director of Macular Degeneration Support, a non-profit solute organization Missouri. The bigger and brighter solute the light source is, the greater solute the potential risk to your retina. It is unlikely that small white LED lamps cause many problems, says Roberts. Other factors are the proximity and if you take precautions. For example, solute the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation suggests not look directly at the light table close for more than 100 seconds. LEDs are directional, meaning they do not radiate light in 360 degrees as the CFL, says the Environmental Protection Agency. Blue light waves are more likely to damage the retina among people who tend to have macular problems due to age, environment, genetics or health habits, says Roberts. THE GOOD NEWS is indeed less likely to LED lights cause more damage to health than other high efficiency bulbs such as compact fluorescent lights because they do not produce what the author of "Zapped", Ann Louise Gittleman, calls " dirty electricity ". According to her, it can cause chronic fatigue solute syndrome, which is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, pain, and can also cause headaches, depression, solute pain, dizziness, memory loss and confusion, and difficulty sleeping. If you choose CFL instead of LED, you can fight the "dirty electricity" with filters, says Paul Henderson in the magazine article "Vitality" "Why do your appliances solute may be making you sick." Some people are more prone to be affected by the "dirty electricity" due to electrical hypersensitivity, or EHS (for its acronym in English), says Henderson. According to the World Health Organization, this hypersensitivity is characterized by a variety of non-specific symptoms that differ among individuals. The WHO says the symptoms are real, and can even be a disabling problem, but may be due to factors such as poor air quality and poor ergonomic design of workstations. Until 2010, there was no diagnostic criteria for EHS. WHO advises doctors to focus on the symptoms and not on the perceived solute need for people to eliminate or reduce exposure to "dirty electricity." * Source: @ ConMuchoOjo1 Facebook: ConMucho.ojo
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Wednesday, February 26, 2014

In the text, transcribed below, the main applications cas that this technology presents to both the

In the text, transcribed below, the main applications cas that this technology presents to both the development cas of alternative energies, such as to improve the environment and food processing are analyzed:
Speaking of energy, one of the great promises that accompanies the development of nanotechnology is the development of cells or fuel cells capable of accumulating hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the most promising as an energy source. Carbon nanotubes have been proposed cas as the best candidates for storing large amounts of hydrogen cas gas safely.
The researchers are committed to fill fuel tanks with carbon nanotubes coated with titanium cas or other metal, which would function like Velcro retaining hydrogen. With the vehicle cas engine running, the hydrogen would slide to the fuel cell where it is transformed cas into electricity and steam. Although the development of this system is still in its preliminary phase physical and chemical around the world are convinced it will be one of the future energy alternatives.
From the U.S., a team of scientists from Rutgers University has proposed alternative. Using a thin metal surface formed by millions of nanosized pyramids, managed to extract hydrogen from ammonia. Given that the liquid ammonia is easy to obtain, it may be handled in the same way as gasoline or diesel, avoiding the danger that hydrogen gas would carry highly unstable.
Another source of renewable energy that will benefit from advances in molecular manipulation is solar energy. The sun is for many the only source of energy that can completely replace fossil fuels. However, the solar cells currently rely thin wafers of silicon, gallium arsenide or other semiconductor, the manufacturing is very expensive, limiting its use to large remote devices and space satellites. Nanotechnology offers a new possibility, as it allows making very efficient photovoltaic material in the form of thin plastic films or paints to surfaces of buildings and structures. Companies cas like Nanosolar and Nanosys U.S. have already obtained the first results.
As if this were not enough, the Research Institute cas of Petroleum Industry (PIPI) Iran has already been proposed using nanotechnology to reduce gasoline consumption. And, using nanoparticles in lubricants, they say, not only the wear of internal engine parts is reduced but also the fuel consumption is reduced by half, which could save 200 million liters of gasoline per year.
Water has become an increasingly scarce resource. Factors such as climate change, increasing demand and pollution are affecting the availability of this resource worldwide. But how can this be called the blue planet, where 70% is water? The answer is in fresh water, which represents only 2.8%. Most are located on poles and glaciers, leaving only 0.02% percent of surface water and ground water 0.37%, cas which access technology requires increasingly sophisticated cas extraction.
Fortunately, nanotechnology could help change these numbers by developing techniques for desalination, purification or cleaning wastewater. cas Thus, the company has developed KX Industries based antiviral and antibacterial nanotechnology membranes to convert non-potable water into drinking filters. The basic principle cas of these membranes is that their pores are so small that they can filter down to smaller agencies. Different is the company strategy Argonide, cas which manufactures aluminum nanofibers positive electrical charge attracts negatively cas charged microbes, thus purifying the water. Or the Nanomagnetics, which has created magnetic particles immersed in protein spheres 12 nanometers, can be used to purify water and even to desalinate.
In agriculture, companies like Monsanto and Pharmacia cas have been put to work to develop nanocapsules with drugs, insecticides, fungicides, pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers that are released in a controlled manner, for example, in contact with the stomach of certain insects. This will allow the use of agricultural chemicals to be less toxic to the environment.
The new industrial revolution is brewing at the nanoscale also leave its mark in the field of food. From Rutgers University, Professor Huang Qingrong focuses on two applications of nanotechnologies: nutraceutical food, which use proteins cas to

Tuesday, February 25, 2014

A breakdown voltage or withstand voltage is defined as the absolute maximum voltage between two ter

Bipolar junction transistors (BJT): There are two types, PNP and NPN, were used to amplify analog signals, digital signal processing and electrical power as a switch in integrated circuits and discrete components.
The depletion MOSFET or deplexion channel can be "n" or channel "p", these amplifiers have limited high frequency RF input stages for its low noise applications. monulb
The enhancement MOSFET or storage, are widely used in digital systems, high integration density as logic gates, semiconductor memories, microprocessors, microcontrollers etc. Also available as enhancement MOSFET switch high power supply (eg VMOS).
The MESFET, are field effect transistors constructed from semiconductor material of gallium arsenide (GaAs). Channel are "n" and the they used for its fast switching microwave circuits, high frequency amplifiers and high speed logic systems.
Static induction transistor (SIT): These high power devices and high frequency. They are similar to the JFET, except for the vertical construction and buried gate. They are used in linear power amplifiers in audio, DHF, UHF and microwave. They are not used as a switch for high voltage drop across its terminals.
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT): They are used mainly in switching circuits for example electric power inverter circuits dc to ac, and other applications. These devices combine the advantages of the MOSFET and BJT transistors.
Bipolar transistors are constructed form three semiconductor regions NPN or PNP type, as shown in the drawing. These regions monulb are called terminals collector, base and emitter. They have two joints or seams: The collector-base junction and the base-emitter junction. Bipolar transistors can be NPN or PNP.
We have two regions for the n + emitter of the NPN transistor and two p + regions to the emitter of PNP transistor. NPN transistor for the n-side emitter is narrow and strongly doped, the base is narrow with a rather less than the emitter doping, and the n-side collector is wide and greater monulb than the base doping. In the case of PNP transistors, the features are similar, with respect to dimensions and doping. It should be noted that from the electrical point of view the transistors are not symmetrical, meaning that the terminals are not interchangeable. For example if we exchange the collector emitter terminals, monulb the operation is deficient without current gain.
We have three areas of bipolar transistor operation: cutting zone, active zone and saturation zone. In the cutting zone, the transistor is open or OFF, the base current is not enough to saturate it, and the two junctions monulb are reverse biased. In the active region, the transistor acts as a linear monulb amplifier, in which the base current is amplified a gain determined, and the collector-emitter voltage decreases as the base current. In this area the voltage collector-base junction, and this reverse biased junction voltage of the base is forward biased collector. monulb In the saturation region, the base current is sufficiently monulb high so that the collector monulb emitter voltage is low, and the transistor acts as a closed switch. In this area, loved joints are polarized directly.
A breakdown voltage or withstand voltage is defined as the absolute maximum voltage between two terminals, with the third terminal open, shorted or polarized directly or inversely. A breakdown voltage remains relatively constant as the current monulb increases rapidly. The manufacturers provided monulb the following breakdown voltages:
V CEO (sus): The maximum voltage between Terminal supporting the collector and emitter monulb terminal, with the base open circuit. This value is specified with the stream and the maximum monulb collector voltage, appearing in simultaneously through the device and a specified value of load inductance.
Bipolar NPN and PNP transistors are commonly used in RF, but is more problematic extension to microwave frequencies, the limitations imposed by its structure, especially for its high capabilities that reduce the gain with frequency.
The main difference is that, unlike in the homojunction bipolar transistor, in this case the semiconductor is not only: in the case of InP HBT or SiGe heterojunction which is formed by InGaAs / InP or Si / SiGe in each case. The emitter is fabricated on a

Monday, February 24, 2014

Plato and spread the true knowledge (science: episteme: ἐπιστήμη) mere common belief or opinion (do

Logic studies the structure of coherent reasoning. Ie, what conclusions can deduce so needed from the relationship between propositions empty content. Thus, we affirm indicates that if a thesis dow and its opposite fall into the absurd. So the logic is presented as a propaedeutic, that is a preparation or prior discipline philosophy. Like grammar rules gives phrases dow that can build within those limits but leaves us free to create infinite possible sentences, logical laws constitute the skeleton or scaffolding of knowledge but not their contents or their meat. The content of knowledge, making true or false statements would be given to the sciences.
Derived from the Latin scientia and scire (to know) and related to the words consciousness and foolishness (or nescience: ignorance), "science" is synonymous with certain knowledge or foundation. "Knowledge for certain causes," according to Aristotle's definition. Scientific knowledge dow differs from other ways of accessing reality as art, religion, myth also be knowledge. It is also distinguished from the vulgar "experience" or common-knowledge which is sufficient to predict whether a storm is coming or to perform certain tasks such as herding or hunting, dow or mere information (like knowing where my house or how is called the prime minister).
Plato and spread the true knowledge (science: episteme: ἐπιστήμη) mere common belief or opinion (doxa: δόξα). Episteme is knowledge of the universal and the essential while the Doxa is knowledge of the particular as it manifests no certainty or security. Be familiar with the palm of my hand (the particular) is not science but I would know the bones and muscles of either hand (in general).
According to the classification of Aristotle, science would be the theoretical-knowledge that are sought by the mere desire to know, to discover the truth-versus-productive or technical knowledge like carpentry or kitchen; knowledge dow aimed creating works or results-and practical-ethical and political dow knowledge, which aims to better living, good action at the individual or social level.
A definition of science might be: A way of knowing which aims to develop language through dow accurate and appropriate-to the extent possible using the mathematical language laws by which the phenomena in order to predict governed and eventually control (Ferrater Mora, Dictionary of Philosophy). The accuracy, the discovery of regularities and the ability to make accurate predictions characterize science.
As you saw in the first issue (Introduction to Philosophy) philosophy and science they walked together to the seventeenth century. Between love of wisdom and scientific knowledge there was no separation or Aristotle dow in the Middle Ages. Still the work of Newton who founded modern physics is entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles dow of Natural Philosophy) (1687) ("natural philosophy" is physical). Only later was the progress of mathematization and specialization when many individual disciplines broken off from the parent stem of philosophy arose. But philosophers, seekers interested in general followed the progress of the various fields of research and tried to unify them into a coherent picture of the world and of human beings. Ie as they tried to coordinate data from a vantage point of the various sciences.
In the nineteenth dow century, inspired by the success of experimental science and its applications to industry Auguste Comte (1798-1857), founder of positivism or scientism, the view that philosophy was a kind of adolescent or immature stage of knowledge before achieve the scientific level theological or fictitious state would have gone to a metaphysical or abstract state (philosophy) and hence the scientific or positive state, it would be the last and final solution to all the problems of humanity.
Science on the other hand is not a natural attitude dow and often coincides with the so-called common sense. Copernicus (1473-1543) was justly praised for doing violence to their senses by postulating an Earth

Silicone stearic acid and Teflon: Both are very inert polymers, ie unreactive with other substances

The post about fluoride grip waxes and post comments with Koldo, took us to the ever mysterious and enigmatic of additives in the wax spot. Let's stearic acid see if we can make some sense of this cumbersome issue.
The waxes are composed primarily of a mixture of waxes and resins in different proportions. This ratio along with different characteristics, also different from the resins used, conferring different waxes its viscosity and hardness properties, stearic acid which make them suitable for the type according to which temperature of snow. Manufacturers are careful to make public these formulations secret, of course.
In addition, Teflon, Graphite, Molybdenum, Gallium, Silicon, Fluorine, etc ... are substances (announced with fanfare by the manufacturer) that often incorporate a certain amount of these waxes and have come to extend the choice of additives before limited almost exclusively to Silver. It is assumed that the function of improving qualities of the wax is sought with these additives acts primarily through three mechanisms: lubrication, the hydrophobic effect and the electrical conductivity. Different substances have a more marked effect in other aspects and can be found both as waxes slip grip. Fluorine will have already spent a couple stearic acid of articles in cvcfondo and graphite, widely used, we will devote another shortly. Let's take a look at Gallium, Molybdenum, Teflon and silicone.
Gallium and Molybdenum: Both are, as we say, metals good conductors, and are used in waxes to discharge static electricity so that this dirt in the snow does not stick so much. In our setting, the dirt is a problem concerning affects especially in spring, when the melting and evaporation will concentrate the amount of particles in the snow that remains. This makes us see this problem generally associated with waxes tube. The powder snow to skied on the mountain, in winter, on the other hand is usually pretty clean snow (unless it is mixed, the effect of the machine, with old dirty snow). In other places, however, often skiing at sea level, stearic acid close to the cities and snow that may be dirty due to pollution. This causes the repulsion of the dirt is a constant concern of manufacturers, also wax pot.
In addition to improving the conductivity of the waxes, both metals disulfide stearic acid has a lubricating effect, which makes it suitable for use in sliding waxes both dry and wet snow. The main benefit we can get from these two additives is that over long distances, stearic acid the wax is gripping or slipping, will have better performance, it will "dull" less due to the dirt track.
Silicone stearic acid and Teflon: Both are very inert polymers, ie unreactive with other substances and in addition, good electrical insulators. Teflon is a fluorocarbon (having fluorine stearic acid in the molecule) and is one of the materials which provides a lower coefficient of friction, however silicones are polymers of silicon.
These substances produce lubrication so that they are unreactive with neighboring molecules, i.e., reducing friction. Thus operate completely different from graphite, which is a self-lubricating solid due to its peculiar structure in layers sliding. Being bad drivers, stearic acid do not prevent the accumulation of dirt. Its low reactivity also makes them hydrophobic but not feel a special revulsion water specifically, at least no more than to other substances.
Mixed with paraffin or gel or liquid applied, improve gliding short distances, but not repel dirt, do not improve the performance stearic acid of other waxes over long distances. Some believe even they tend to collect more dirt for themselves.
In short, in short races, our waxes slip could benefit from the inclusion of silicones or Teflon in composition, whereas in long runs, waxes, both gripping and sliding, can benefit from the inclusion of gallium stearic acid or molybdenum.
If (1)
2 varies depending stearic acid on the compound. Fluorocarbons in general, as discussed for the Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), are nothing reagents and this gives them a low coefficient of friction that acts as a lubricant.
(A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating chain of smaller molecule stearic acid or monomer, which can be hung atoms of different elements, or have different architectures turn, giving it very different characteristics. A fluorocarbon is a molecule with a long backbone units consisting of carbon and fluorine, but

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Below is reproduced an interview with Monica Lara, VA CSIC Scientific corrosion Culture, for the se

Research and disseminate
Advances in chemistry and its impact on society in the blog chemical aspects (developments, applications, news, history, etc..), Especially in relation to education, training and science policy activities are discussed.
Below is reproduced an interview with Monica Lara, VA CSIC Scientific corrosion Culture, for the section speak scientists. In the long interview I reflect on the situation of the country, political, science, scientific culture, Educaion and media.
At 55 years old, Bernardo Herradón says his goal is not to accumulate publications or win the Nobel prize. He prefers, he says, contribute to "engage younger science" and is proud that they have made the thesis have followed him in the investigation. corrosion This scientist divide his time between the laboratory of the Institute of Organic Chemistry (CSIC), which recently investigated a method for graphene, and the popularization of science. Update their blogs, gives lectures, organizes courses, participating in radio programs and writes books like The advances in chemistry, from the collection 'What do we know?' (CSIC-Cataract). With so much occupation Herradón admits to occasional articles waiting to be published. But do not give too much importance because it holds that there is "an inflationary boom of scientific corrosion publications." However, it regrets that the Spanish society is "scientifically illiterate" and contempt corrosion of governments by science. "There are very shortsighted politicians, living from election to election and not make a long term commitment," he says.
Yes, it's fundamental. A researcher not involved in tasks that have to do with scientific culture, not a thorough researcher. corrosion The research has several facets: publishing in scientific journals, train young researchers corrosion to get funding for research and communication to society of scientific developments, whether you've done the other. corrosion
Any researcher should serve to disclose. When a colleague says that does not work, you have not made the effort to do so. I like to always say a phrase attributed corrosion to Einstein, although it has been put into the mouth of the mathematician Henri Poincaré. It says something like: "If you can not explain to your grandmother what you're doing, you obviously have not understood your own research." A researcher has to know anyone explain in simple and clear words, very abstract knowledge.
Yes, and increasingly because I'm realizing corrosion that you can explain anything. For example, the Higgs boson can be explained without resort to any mathematical formula. Myself, I'm an organic chemist, I am able to explain it, but obviously theoretical physicists and excellent communicators, as Teresa Rodrigo Alberto Casas or will do so intelligible to anyone.
Unfortunately, some colleagues often know much about your area and have no outside scientific culture. I have also met people who are not dedicated to science and having corrosion a great scientific culture that can explain such things to them.
I like to say that the scientist is a citizen and also without it looking corrosion into this arrogance, I think the scientist would have to be an opinion leader in society, because after all science corrosion is behind almost everything. When speaking of budgets, are behind mathematics. If we are to issues such as energy problem we face problems corrosion such as shortage of fuel or store Recent underwater corrosion gas off the coast of Castellón. If he had consulted scientists, geologists for example, maybe he would not have built. But they were never view what should be the energy policy. For example, the CSIC, as a multidisciplinary body should be advising the government in power at local or national level, on matters corrosion related to science.
Because in Spain, governments, whatever color they are, tend to despise science, are not aware that everything around us is science. Sites scientists are highly regarded, but here are very short-sighted politicians, living from election to election and not make a long term commitment. And then there's the Spanish society, that unfortunately, is generally corrosion scientifically illiterate.
With patience, and I return to the political issue. The great value of a country is to have very educated people, but that's not as plant potatoes, corrosion but you have to be very patient, speak clearly to society, develop an education law that is not being modified with each government ... and then into the formation: science, by its nature, must be cultivated daily. I very much enjoy reading, going to the movies ... P

Saturday, February 22, 2014

Ethereal Chains The duration of the slowdown (and length to immobilization) was reduced from 2 to 1

[Important mr lube note: Udyr the Guardian Spirits if he comes in this patch, come all your files, just as they have done that with other things like Lissandra or Aatrox, shall make them available later]
A common complaint about Corki has to do with how you feel extremely limited by the cost of pump Fosfórica. However, after observing his abilities, Bomb Fosfórica actually mr lube needs to be face to balance their lack of mechanical counterattack. That's why we reduced the cost of some of his other spells to reduce overall mana constraints.
Reduced results from damage in early Draven got his passive game because mr lube he was not contributing much to make more satisfying when your playing style. Unfortunately, for us to leave the numbers, we realized that we would need reducer damage his passive to the point that his style of play would have been even more unsatisfactory. Instead, we chose to redo the passive Draven once and turn it into something mr lube that renforzara your current style, mr lube something very ... Draven ... until your opponents will feel jealous when I say: Welcome to ... League of Draven.
League Draven (new passive) When Draven Swivel or catches a Axe kills a minion or monster, adds an accumulation of Worship. When he kills a champion, consumes half of its accumulations of Worship and win 3 gold per consumed accumulation. Draven loses half of its accumulations of Worship at death.
By increasing the cooling Portal Acceleration Jayce, you can keep the impact of the combination Power + Acceleration mr lube Portal Explosion, while reducing their ability to harass mr lube and retreat distance. Furthermore, since in the final phase of the game not all Power Explosions are accelerated, the base rate was increased ability to make it better as a skill used by itself.
The shuriken made by yordle appeared more pointed and sharp than normal, so part of the harassment was reduced in lane early game Kennen, because of the great potential in team fights you have. The basic attack damage at level 1 is reduced from 54.6 to 50.5.
Mime LeBlanc was less decisive choice and more a tool to kill someone with a combination Seal of Silence. These changes aim to make Mimicry is equally interesting mr lube to use other skills. Now, the skills used before Mimicry inflict the same base damage instead of spell damage amplified. This means that players can use more creatively Mimic at level 6, instead of saving Seal of Silence. In addition, Seal of Silence now inflict less initial damage but damage to explode, thus improving interaction skills with LeBlanc.
Seal of Silence mana cost reduced to 50/60/70/80/90 from 70/75/80/85/90. Damage changed to 55/80/105/130/155 (+0.4 Ability Power) for the initial impact damage and damage to the detonation of the brand. The impact damage was 70/110/150/190/230 (+0.6 Ability Power). The brand damage was 20/40/60/80/100 (+0.2 Ability Power). Silence duration was reduced from 2 to 1.5 seconds.
Now the distortion starts to kick the cooling ability instead of returning to distortion. The mana cost increased from 80 to 80/90/100/110/120. A bug that distortion was visible in the fog of war was corrected.
Ethereal Chains The duration of the slowdown (and length to immobilization) was reduced from 2 to 1.5 seconds. The duration of immobilization mr lube was changed from 1/1, 3/1, 6/1, 9/2, 2 to 1.5 seconds. Cooling was increased from 10 seconds to 14/13/12/11/10 seconds. mr lube
We assign mr lube the role of principal, Fire Breath control objectives and fastest time in the jungle tool, in turn, we emphasize its use as ability to "burn" the life and give rise to the autoataques against fighters more resistant. We also corrected an error with Burnout Shyvana, whereby no progress with Attack Damage while in Dragon Form. This correction, together with increased fury in obtaining and reducing the decrease of this, the help in team fights late. Finally, we have moved the descriptions of the passive effects to new descriptions of the skills to help focus information.
Fury Dragon Daughter: Revised. All effects Fury Daughter of the Dragon have been moved to their respective abilities. Daughter of the Dragon: Dragon's Daughter: Gets 5/10/15/20 Armor and Magic Resistance. These bonuses are doubled in Dragon Form.
Breath of Fire longer reduces armor by 15%. Now through all unidade

Look at the atom center initially had 4 electrons in its outer shell. Share one with his neighbor o

Computer Magic A - Physics of semiconductor | Lattice
Throughout the series we have seen how the major operating components manufactured semiconductor diode, BJT and MOSFET transistors. But we did not see why they behaved well. In this appendix we will explain.
We decided to take this discussion to an appendix, poljoinfo rather than leave it in the main body, for two reasons: It is not necessary to continue the series. Learn how transistors work was necessary to know how the components are built higher, but to know why not work the way it was. Requires a level physics and chemistry a little deeper poljoinfo than is required the rest of the series. You will not need to be an expert in electromagnetism, but words like current, voltage, electron, silicon or boron scare you. If you're confused, you should at least check Sieve Series on Electricity. It also requires that at least it sounds layered organization of the electrons of the atoms (I studied in high school, so I guess that is told in the ESO or the current school). It also requires you to assimilate each heading before moving to the next and remember. Finally, poljoinfo although not complicated, and will simplify poljoinfo so that is understandable, requires some mental agility, read it carefully and maybe read it twice to understand it.
Let's start our discussion by the silicon crystal. Silicon (Si) is an element with 14 protons and electrons 14, [1] divided into three layers: the first layer has 2 electrons, the second layer has 8 electrons and the third layer has four electrons. The silicon crystal are a lot of silicon atoms linked together by covalent bonds. Just in case you do not have fresh college chemistry: a covalent bond is one in which you two atoms pooled one electron each, sharing both, so that the electron is not one or the other, but both. Also worth remembering that the chemicals have fondness to fill its valence shell with 8 electrons, [2] whether dropping to spare so that the layer is empty (and therefore the penultimate, poljoinfo who is 8, becomes in "last" and complete left), either by taking poljoinfo the missing to be 8 in last. The covalent bond is a form of the shared electrons between two atoms, and so both have 8 (in a way, at least).
Look at the atom center initially had 4 electrons in its outer shell. Share one with his neighbor on the left, which in turn shares one with him, so that for every neighbor gains an electron ... in a way. And so, with 4 neighbors, its outer shell has 8 electrons want.
Obviously, in the real world is not a two-dimensional structure, but three-dimensional, so that is not a mesh, but two of the links are a bit up and two down a bit, and so bind the next 3D floor ... but hey, that does not matter. The important thing is: sicilio each atom is bonded to four neighbors via covalent bonds.
Let's see first the intrinsic semiconductor. We are not interested in our account, but we will see them over to shake them out of the way. Note that these electrons are strongly bound to the nuclei, so that this material, as such, is relatively poor conductor. But if that structure is energized (for example, simply by a high temperature, but can be other things), one of those electrons can jump from layer 3 to layer 4. Note that layer 4 is now farther from the nucleus, poljoinfo so that electron and is relatively free and can move along the material if we put a voltage ... ie as current flows. [3] Note: the material is insulator or conductor. It can be insulated in general, but if for example the temperature rises, it becomes conductive. It can also be, for example, because they arrive photons (ie, light).
Semiconductors that interest us, anyway, are extrinsic semiconductors. Suppose now that one of the atoms replace silicon by a phosphorous. In case you do not remember, phosphorus (P) has 15 electrons: 2 in the first layer, 8 in the second and 5 in the third. So when we introduce the strength of a network of silicon atoms form four covalent bonds with them ... and an electron is lost.
This electron is not part of any link. Not only that, but now all the atoms in both the silicon and the phosphorus have 8 electrons in the third layer. All are "complete". So that orphan electron is in the fourth poljoinfo layer.
Note that the element remains neutral, has a negative charge, because poljoinfo phosphorus has 15 protons, so that, from the point of v

Friday, February 21, 2014

CURA gallium in serious conditions of the kidneys: Galio + + Goldenrod Yellow dead nettle, equally.

The weather station and determine the type of energy food. From the winter solstice to the summer sun increases energy (heat and more air present), from summer to winter increases the energy of the moon (earth and water). Most energy accumulation occurs in the winter gc solstice and the lowest in the summer.
All organs and body systems are renewed periodically. Food provides the necessary elements gc for such a renewal, so should gc be adequate, with proper and related to the nature of biological information body.
. 4 - Do not make more than three meals a day (BDNF protein, related to the regeneration of the nervous system, and SIRT, mechanisms related to anti aging and anti inflammation, are generated when no digestion).
. 5 - Season Vegetables (zucchini, peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, leeks, onions, beets, cabbage, lettuce, beets, carrots ...), replace meat with fresh fish, light meats (chicken, lamb-bit gc spicy), fruits of the area or strip (cherries, apricots, pears, plums, peaches, gc watermelons, melons ...). Increase consumption of citrus.
-Do not eat old food. -Avoid excessive consumption gc of green, raw, leaf vegetables. -Avoid constant intake of acidic foods. -Do not take cold drinks before, during or after meals. gc -Avoid foods immature. Relationship-intake: solid, liquid, , empty. Combine eggs and fish-generated toxic states. -Latte, inhibits a protein related to the coordination of the liver and gallbladder. Do not take. -Rejuvenating Massage: melted butter with nutmeg and anise walnut. - Avoid faraday box effect.
1).-Leave to soak almonds overnight in nevera.2) -. Drain the water, put the almonds in a blender, add the vanilla, honey and four to five ice cubes, beat at high speed for two to three minutes.3) -. Pouring milk in a glass, wait for the sediment forms on the bottom and drink all.
Pollen and honey. Provides gc essential gc fatty acids, amino acids, zinc and trace elements. One of the best remedies for prostate problems, skin diseases and allergies. You can add ginseng or ginkgo.
Dish of the mummy. Restorative: Half cup peeled and chopped dates + half cup chopped dried figs + three + water sprinkle a tablespoon cornmeal. Simmer, stirring, 10 minutes. Serve with a little ghee.
In the tradition was used for bronchitis (50% with tincture tincture of thyme, 1 teaspoon 3 v / d)), asthma (1 cup root infusion, before c); convalescence, skin problems (ointments). 1. Elecampane oil.
Debug kidneys, liver, pancreas and spleen of toxic substances. If you suffer from disorders of the lymphatic glands, fluid retention, stitches in the side, you should take each day infusion. External use for skin conditions, wounds, boils, pimples, ulcers, skin malignancies, also for withered skin.
CURA gallium in serious conditions of the kidneys: Galio + + Goldenrod Yellow dead nettle, equally. Infusion unboiled, 4 cups a day. If degenerative disease also take blood purifier tisane: Calendula 300g + 100g + 100g Yarrow Nettle (1 liter and day, every 20 minutes a drink).
VI Health and Medicine Conference. April 21, 2013
2014 (6) February (2) February (4) 2013 (21) January (2) October (3) August (4) July (4) June (1) May (1) HEALTH BY STATIONS gc March (2) February (3) January (1) 2012 (17) January (1) January (1) October (2) August (1) July (1) June (4) May (2) April (3) February (1) January gc (1) 2011 (11) November (1) October (1) August (2) July (2) May (2) January (1) March (2) 2010 (5) January (1) July (2) October (2) 2008 (3) October (1) October (2)
dNosoutros not tradition or knowledge of the ancients. There is no yesterday, no tomorrow looks. If there is a challenge, is here in the present. Everything that has been and can be now. Someone said that the root of man is man. Maybe

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Photovoltaic plastic cells at its peak Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Sys

Crystal Structure. Translation Symmetry And Bravais Lattices. Basis and unit cell. Classifying lattices: plastic symmetry in 2D. Symmetry operations. Two Dimensional Lattice Types. Classifying lattices: Symmetry in 3D. Projected Crystal Structures. Polonium, Po. Chromium, Nickel Cr, Ni. Cobalt Co. More Crystal Structures. Silicon. CsCl. NaCl. Zinc Blende
Photovoltaic plastic cells at its peak Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG-ISE), Germany, have made their dream a reality sooner than expected. In January 2009 they beat a world record in the field of multi-junction solar cells with a conversion rate of 41.24%. But they think they can go further, thanks to solar cells equipped metamorphic plastic multijunction structures. It seems that the sun has not yet said its last word. Source: Fraunhofer ISE Conventional photovoltaic cells (PV) silicon single junction, enough to power our watches and calculators, are not very effective to convert the energy of the solar spectrum plastic into electricity. These industrial photovoltaic cells efficiently convert only 17% of this energy, while other components are up to 25%. Hence, research is focusing on the development of multijunction PV cells. These cells, being composed of different elements, such as gallium arsenide, indium phosphide and gallium or germanium may capture a wider range of solar energy. A multijunction structure is in principle plastic only the accumulation of single-junction cells, but different semiconductors plastic are applied, each of the joints becomes different bands of the solar spectrum, with higher performance. For a decade, the Fraunhofer plastic Institute developed metamorphic multijunction solar cells, semiconductor based groups III-V, suitable for converting sunlight into electricity. The preparation of any PV cell is made from a semiconductor pn junction (1). To get a better conversion rate accumulate cells of different materials, each possessing its own PN junction. In early 2009, the Fraunhofer Institute holds the world record with a cell composed of a germanium substrate coated with gallium arsenide, and a third layer of indium phosphide and gallium. According to Andreas Bett, head of the solar cell, the idea of increasing the effectiveness accumulation is not new, but the key has been to use the right technology, with high quality materials. The trick: metamorphic crystal growth All semiconductors are crystalline materials. These periodic structures are formed plastic by layers of atoms separated by a distance of the chemical element used itself, termed "lattice constant". The bottom layer of the "cake" here is germanium, and if other material is deposited on top, in principle has to be compatible with germanium, ie have the same lattice constant. High quality glass, which poses few problems when converting sunlight is then obtained. But if the lattice constant differs, however slightly, called local failures "dislocations" that greatly reduce the conversion rate occur. plastic Therein lies the trick of metamorphic growth Fraunhofer Institute, which brought about a specific FV inactive layer, called "intermediate layer", which are confined all crystal dislocations. plastic Above said intermediate layer each new material is deposited lattice constant, which gives the end a nearly flawless crystal. All the imperfections plastic are concentrated in an electrically inactive region of the solar cell, leaving the active portions clean. The metamorphic crystal growth using a wider field in IIIV semiconductor multijunction PV cells. For optimum performance, the solar spectrum is divided into three zones of equal size using appropriate materials with absorption properties. The combination of Ga0.35In0.65P and metamorphic materials Ga0.83In0.17As / Ge is well adapted, and that each of the subcells of the triple junction generates the same amount of electric current, an essential condition for improving the conversion efficiency . Set yourself again? Higher goals? It was the first attempt by the Fraunhofer researchers. In 2008 they had broken the European record for solar conversion, which rose from 37.6% to 39.7% in the space of three months. The development of triple junction cells was performed under the FULLSPECTRUM project, funded under the Sixth Research Framework Programme, launched in 2003. The scientists began their research with a yield of 32% to 35% on the date of completion of the project in September

Most of the time, the WBC scan is performed when the doctor suspects a hidden infection. It is part

WBC scan or leukocyte scintigraphy is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance (called a tracer) is used to find areas of infection or inflammation in the body.
Blood is taken from a vein. White blood cells are separated from the remainder of the blood sample and mixed with a small amount of radioactive material (radioisotope) called indium-111. The cells with the radioactive material are considered "tagged."
Approximately sour 2 to 3 hours later, the tagged white blood cells are returned to the body through an injection into a vein. These tagged cells gather in areas of inflammation or infection.
Body scintigraphy It takes about 6 to 24 hours later. You lie on a table. The scanner, which looks like an X-ray detects the radiation emitted by radioactive white blood cells and a computer converts the detected radiation into images that can be viewed on a screen or recorded on film.
Once the test is completed, no recovery time is needed or special precautions you can usually resume your usual diet, activity and normal medications. Preparing for WBC scan
Usually, there is no need for fasting, special diets, or preliminary medications. You will wear a hospital gown or may be allowed to wear loose fitting clothing without metal fasteners. Remove jewelry, dentures, or metal objects before the procedure. In addition, you must sign a release.
Tell your doctor if you have had a gallium scan within the last month, if you have diabetes, or if you are on dialysis, total parenteral nutrition (through an IV) or steroid therapy. What you feel during the WBC scan
There is a sharp prick of the needle during the taking of the blood sample and again when the blood is returned to your body. The procedure itself sour is painless, although the table where you will be asked to lie may be hard or cold. The radioactive material is not felt. Why the WBC scan is performed
Most of the time, the WBC scan is performed when the doctor suspects a hidden infection. It is particularly useful when you suspect an infection or inflammation inside the abdomen or bones.
This test may be recommended if you have a suspected abscess, osteomyelitis, or unexplained fever, especially after surgery. Normal values of WBC scan
A normal result means no accumulations of tagged cells (except for a certain amount in the liver and spleen, which normally accumulate these cells). What abnormal values of WBC scan
Abnormal results usually suggest the presence of an active inflammation or infection such as a liver abscess or abdominal abscess. What are the risks of WBC scan
There is a very slight exposure to radiation from the radioisotope. The spleen normally receives the highest dose of radiation because white blood cells usually accumulate there. The radiation from these materials is very mild and materials decompose (longer sour radioactive) in a very short time. Virtually all radioactivity is gone within a day or two. There are no documented cases of injury from exposure sour to radioisotopes. The scanner only detects radiation, no issues.
Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient sour to another sour and from one side of the body to the other Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin breakdown occurs)
It may be necessary to perform other tests (such as CT scan or ultrasound) to confirm the presence of inflammation or infection indicated by an abnormal white blood cell scintigraphy.
In theory, there may be false negatives due to the use of an antibiotic or a chronic infection. Infections in the liver or spleen may be overlooked by the normal accumulation sour of white blood cells in these organs.
False positive results are due to various causes, including but bleeding, presence of probes or catheters into the body and skin wounds (such as surgical incisions). The accumulation of white blood cells in the lungs is not necessarily indicative of a lung infection.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

League of Draven Now grants 50 extra gold for every murder of an enemy champion (instead of 0). Now

Abstract: The passive Draven now consume all accumulations to kill, in order to give extra gold, but the gold awarded was reduced to 1 accumulation. In addition, passive Draven permitted at least 50 extra gold for murder.
Context: It is a proven fact that Draven is the greatest champion of League of Legends, but his new passive League of Draven feels a bit loose. We have tried to find ways to make the mechanics of Adoration give better rewards (visually and functionally) during the late game and multiple murders. surfactant
League of Draven Now grants 50 extra gold for every murder of an enemy champion (instead of 0). Now consumes all accumulations surfactant of Adoration of the murder, in order to reward gold Draven (previously only consumed half). surfactant Accumulations consumption was reduced by gold worship 3 to 2. The graphics and sounds are played League of Draven killings across Draven, instead of only consuming killing a large number of accumulations.
Context: The Definitive surfactant Fiora, Waltz of Blades, has had problems in terms of reliability for a while, so we made some vital changes to ensure that it can be used with satisfactory results.
Waltz of Swords now necessary indirigibles or invisible targets will be selected to continue the Waltz of Blades. If Fiora have to jump on one of these goals to continue his Vals Swords, surfactant will, yes, the ability to not inflict damage indirigibles surfactant or invisible surfactant units. If the target is discovered when Fiora jumps on him (in the bush), it will inflict normal damage.
Context: The Definitive Gallium surfactant has several steps to keep within the limits, but between the counter and the costs of resources (mana and cooling), we believe it is very limited in general. By reducing cooling and mana cost of this final ability, we ensure that Galio remains a viable choice for all levels of play.
Context: In the beginning, when we design a Zac our biggest concern was making its particles were not difficult to use for players Zac, but we accumulated the variables in your favor. So we encode its particles so that Zac could absorb surfactant even if his enemies were close and likely to crush. This is how we launched Zac, who in turn threw himself directly to the category of "Fantastic" in various levels of play in the league. We continue to balance our acomedido surfactant Zac, but these changes will make your opponents have a more fair and equitable stepping Zac particles in lanes opportunity, and more effectively counter the great resilience of gelatinous green champion.
Cell Division Zac passive surfactant particles were adjusted surfactant so that your opponents can dispute them more easily. If an enemy champion surfactant is 1000 units Zac, its particles appear in a contestable area between your opponent and he (this is not a change, but we discussed it to be clear). The range of contestability for opponents champions Zac 700 to 1000 was increased. Slightly increased surfactant traveling distance the particles Zac disputable. Now matter particles are credited Zac who is closest to them, in cases where both an enemy champion Zac are present (instead of automatically going to Zac). Invulnerability particles decreased from 0.75 to 0.25 seconds. The invulnerability of the particles now applies to Zac as enemies (previously only applied to enemies, now, Zac will have to wait 0.25 seconds before you can absorb their particulate matter). Zac will now have greater scope to collect their particles and ignore delay invulnerability of the particles during the skill's bounce.
Context: As with the Needlessly Large Rod removal in version 3.10, we changed the recipe for the Bloody Sword to alleviate the frustrations that means saving to buy a broadsword. The recipe surfactant changed: Vampiric Scepter Picacha + + 500 gold = 2175 gold total (before Broadsword + Vampiric Scepter + 500 gold = 2850 gold total)
Context: Ambush traps Nidalee give too much vision and control zone maps without sentries. We reduced the duration of the pitfalls to be reflected in the shorter games of the Crystal Scar and Twisted Treeline. The duration of vision and destruction Ambush armor and magic resistance is reduced from 12 to 6 seconds. The duration of the Ambush trap was reduced surfactant from 4-2 minutes.
Context: surfactant As with Nidalee, Teemo's Noxious Traps OTOR

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

The conversion of solar energy into electricity is called photovoltaic conversion aniline and is th

The conversion of solar energy into electricity is called photovoltaic conversion aniline and is the result of the "photovoltaic effect." This effect takes place in known optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. When these devices absorb solar radiation, a DC voltage is generated instantaneously at its terminals and if this resistance is connected, a current will flow, showing thereby generating electrical power with which work is produced.
Although historically the effect was discovered in the s. XIX by French physicist Antoine Becquerel, it was not until modern physics developed with the work of Albert Einstein, it was possible to explain this phenomenon.
The photovoltaic effect may appear in the junction aniline between two materials can be solids, liquids or gases but is in solid, especially in semiconductor different aniline electrical conductivity, which found the best conversion efficiencies. Some semiconductors such as crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride and copper-indium-gallium-selenium are highlighted.
electrical conductivity, preferably semiconductor. One excess of electrons (negative charges) aniline that is called type "n" and the other electron deficient or "holes" (positive charges) which is called type "p". This union forms within the material, aniline an internal electric field without which would take place the photovoltaic effect.
The photovoltaic effect occurs when photons from the solar radiation is absorbed by valence electrons of the semiconductor type "p" exciting them move driving states allowing aniline them to move to the semiconductor "n" creating an accumulation of negative aniline charges in this and the states empty "holes" left by these electrons in the semiconductor "p", accumulate to form a positively charged area. The potential difference in these two areas is externally as a photogenerated voltage and if electrical terminals are placed and a resistor which closes aniline the circuit, the negative charges in the semiconductor photogenerated "n" in the circuit will flow through the resistor, producing work in this, and recombining aniline in the semiconductor "p" in the photogenerated holes.
The electrical power generated by the cells is small, typically up to 2 Watts, so that for a practical application it is necessary to integrate them in a compact package called fotvoltaico module, comprising a number of cells connected in series and / or parallel. Typical powers of commercial modules range from a few Watt to 300 Watt. To further increase the power modules can be connected aniline in series and parallel to form photovoltaic arrays, which are sized and designed to the specific needs of the user. Currently in Mexico there are around 40 megawatts installed for various applications in both rural and urban.
Search for: Recent Posts Echoes of the First National Congress of Students of Renewable Energy. Generating electricity at home Expert opinions: Asking The photovoltaic effect photovoltaic conversion my community Recent Comments Archives November 2013 October 2013 September 2013 August 2013 Categories Projects Blog Meta Log in Entries aniline RSS Comments RSS
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In September 1991, IPEN and the NIE sign a new agreement whereby the IPEN temporarily cedes to CMN

Nuclear medicine began its development as a specialty in the late 40s, at which point you decide to use nuclear energy for medical purposes. 1946 is a historic day, as the first producer of radionuclides reactor cas is built.
1952 The term "Nuclear Medicine" replaces the "Atomic cas Medicine" that had been used until then.
From the 60s the development of Nuclear Medicine is unstoppable. Are of great importance in the setup of the 70 BRAIN SPECT technique, and in the 80s of PET (Positron Emission Tomography).
Activities in nuclear medicine began in 1975 with the creation of the Nuclear Medicine Unit, in close relation to the health sector. The project cas was included in the 1977 Nuclear Plan. On that date the IAEA technical assistance was requested.
In 1978 the Centre for Nuclear cas Medicine (CMN) was established in agreement with the Hospital Loayza. In 1980 a definitive agreement with the Health and Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) Sector is signed. The Ministry of Health gives 1100 m2 in area INEN to build the permanent seat of the CMN. The home became operational in 1983.
The resources generated were $ 60 000 per year, but were administered by IPEN. With the administration of IPEN, bone scintigraphy was $ 20 and the other 10. In 1993, with the NIE, cost twice that are the real prices.
In September 1991, IPEN and the NIE sign a new agreement whereby the IPEN temporarily cedes to CMN for operational control INEN administration with a view to better performance.
In this new status, the CMN operates as a department of Endocrinology, and therefore the health sector. The immediate consequence is the observed improvement of relations with the medical and management is more fluid. It should be noted that revenues are handled by the NIE and materials are purchased in convenient installments.
All these actions are aimed at retrieving the welfare activities of Endocrinology, which serve as the basis for the tasks of research, cas teaching, training and promotion. IPEN staff should cas participate in research in the laboratories of Endocrinology.
Note that the equipment is about 13 years, which is largely cas obsolete in market terms. This demand cas has been some loss procedures such as brain scan, which has been replaced by computed tomography (has INEN, private military hospitals, IPSS, y).
The CMN has two General Electric gamma camera model 400 A scintigraphic studies for patients. It also has laboratories RIA. History cas of nuclear medicine Loaded by raulespert. - More videos of ecology, sustainability and social economy.
2011 (4) October (3) July (1) 2010 (15) November (1) September (1) August (11) July (2) HISTORY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE NUCLEAR MEDICINE .. .

Monday, February 17, 2014

PREGNANCY: The administration of gallium (67Ga) in animals at high doses was teratogenic, although

ACTION AND MECHANISM: - diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Gallium (67Ga) has a similar behavior to the iron, so it could be incorporated into proteins such as transferrin, ferritin or lactoferrin. It tends to accumulate in tumor and inflammatory tissue, from which it will emit a radioactive image. Gallium citrate (67Ga) having a half-life of 3.26 days.
Pharmacokinetics Intravenous: - Distribution: Gallium (67Ga) tends to accumulate especially in bone (25% of dose), and also in liver, spleen, kidneys, lacrimal and salivary glands, nasopharynx and breast. - Elimination: Following intravenous administration, 15-25% of the activity was recovered in the urine within 24 h. The rest of the radioactivity was recovered in feces slowly with a t1 / 2 of 25 days. After 7 days of administration, the body still retains 65% of the activity.
INDICATIONS: - Getting nonspecific images and / or location of tumors with the following objectives: * Diagnosis, staging and management of malignant degradation lymphoma (Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin's) associated with other imaging techniques. * Assessment of the response to treatment. * Evaluation of the extent of the spread in bronchial mediastinal tumors. * Evaluation of the spread of other primary malignancies with varying degradation reliability. - Location of inflammatory lesions. * Diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory degradation diseases, particularly lung, sarcoidosis or opportunistic degradation infections by Pneumocystis carinii. * Characterization and / or location of extrapulmonary inflammatory lesions, tuberculous lymphadenopathy or evaluation of fever of unknown origin. degradation Gallium citrate (67Ga) data provides only nonspecific degradation inflammatory foci, requiring the association with other imaging or biopsy to complement the information obtained.
Dosage: Dosage: Dosage should be individualized for each patient, degradation administering a low activity to obtain images of adequate quality. - Adults, IV: 74-185 MBq of average adult weight of 70 kg. However this dose may vary, and so, in the monitoring of patients with interstitial lung disease with 37 MBq usually enough, while for obtaining tumor imaging SEPCT may take up to 260 MBq. - Children, intravenous 1.8 MBq / kg. RULES FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT: gallium citrate should be administered intravenously only by authorized health professionals. The imaging will be performed 24-92 h after injection, although degradation images of tumors are preferable to take them to the second or third day. If diagnosis of inflammatory lesions may be useful imaging early at 4 h after injection.
WARNINGS EXCIPIENTES: - By containing benzyl alcohol should not be given to premature degradation or newborn infants. Benzyl alcohol doses above 90 mg / kg / day can cause fatal toxic reactions degradation in children under 3 years of age, it is recommended to avoid exceeding these doses. Benzyl alcohol dose below 90 mg / kg / day may cause toxic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions in children under three years.
PRECAUTIONS: - RENAL FAILURE. Exposure to gallium citrate (67Ga) may be greater in patients with renal failure, so it might be necessary to readjust the administered activity. - Pulmonary uptake. At 24-48 hours after administration of gallium citrate, gallium nonspecific uptake in the lung may occur without interstitial lung disease due to. - Training of liver conjugates. Gallium may be conjugated in the liver, which eliminated after bile may appear in intestine and hinder detection of abdominal injuries. In these cases it may be required prior use of a laxative.
INTERACTIONS There are medications that could alter the distribution of 67Ga, giving false positives. These could include cytotoxic drugs, immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids, degradation radiological contrast, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, metoclopramide, methyldopa, oral contraceptives or stilbestrol.
PREGNANCY: The administration of gallium (67Ga) in animals at high doses was teratogenic, although no data are available to determine degradation the risk. Are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans. Generally, the use of gallium citrate (67Ga) is contraindicated during pregnancy. Must previously investigated the possibility of pregnancy in all women of childbearing age to be subjected to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. If in doubt be regarded as positive. If a pregnant woman has to undergo diagnostic techniques, degradation we recommend using alternative techniques that do not involve the use of radiopharmaceuticals

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Nucleotide: Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, ie nucleic acids are forme

The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA or DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the storage of information in the long term. DNA is often compared to a set of templates, a recipe or a code, since it contains the instructions required to produce promotional products other components of cells, such as proteins and molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Glucose (GLC), also called grape sugar is a monosaccharide that cells use as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. One of the main products of photosynthesis and the main point of cellular respiration promotional products in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. promotional products
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C 6 H 10 O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β (1 4) linked D-glucosaunitats. Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and Oomycetes.
Nucleotide: Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, ie nucleic acids are formed by the chain of nucleotides. There are also free to all cells. Molecules are composed of phosphoric acid, a carb five carbons, ie, a pentose and bases. The pentose could be a ribose or its derivative, 2-deoxyribose. Ribose appears nucleotides promotional products that constitute the molecules of RNA and deoxyribose part of DNA. DNA bases:
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Saturday, February 15, 2014

To understand how nicotine acts on the CNS must be known first as there is communication between ne

Nicotine (C 10 H 14 N 2) is an alkaloid derived from ornithine and is found in the leaves of tobacco. In high concentrations is a powerful insecticide used in agriculture and in low concentrations acts as stimulant. This substance is composed of a pyridine and pyrrole isomers and exist of this, the D-and L-nicotine nicotine. The latter is found in tobacco. When a smoker inhales through the substance of cigarette smoke directly into the lungs and therefore reaches the blood. In seven seconds reaches a quarter of nicotine consumed in the CNS, which makes it a psychoactive drug, ie, is capable of producing dependence important to consumers ogm shortly after consuming it. Depending on the amount of nicotine incorporated ogm body reactions ogm may be different. In the first instance when you have consumed a small amount of nicotine ogm contained in cigarettes, the effects of psychostimulants and are therefore improve mental abilities because this mimics the action of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine and therefore Nicotine causes a feeling of ease, calm and improves concentration. This neurotransmitter is secreted by the spinal cord and brain stem and their function is to communicate with these neurons and muscles. It is also important in various regions of the CNS such as heart rate, breathing and dilated pupils, because nicotine has a stimulating ogm effect on these processes. The other reaction is carried out when an important consumption of nicotine, ogm this time the effects ogm of this substance are different because when blood is carried to the brain that produces a sedative effect and acts as a depressant ogm and thus acts as a CNS depressant.
Nicotine can be found between 1 and 2% on cigarettes, so we can conclude that in the case of a cigarette, the nicotine contained in this character would have an effect of psychostimulant as the cigarette of a gram contains only 10 20 mg of this substance and of this 10% going to smoke a cigarette and smoked 1 to 2 mg of nicotine.
The absorption of nicotine may also occur through ogm skin. The amount of nicotine absorbed by the tissue depends on various external factors such as: the personal ogm hygiene, the humidity or the pH of the skin. Another mechanism of absorption of nicotine found in the oral cavity, as in the mouth there is the buccal mucosa and sublingual plexus, they absorb about a 4 to 40% of nicotine that can be found in a normal cigarette. ogm The absorption of nicotine through the mucous membranes is faster with this substance reaches the brain, the effect is immediate as one of the properties that make nicotine produces dependence. Finally, nicotine reaches the lungs, these absorption occurs 79 to 90% shortly after the nicotine reaches the blood and can lead to the brain.
The rate of absorption of this substance depends on the pH level. In the case of tobacco are the normal values of 6 or less. Nicotine in a cigarette is attached to some acidic substances contained in tobacco that makes it not volatile and therefore the absorption of nicotine would be slow, but when lit a cigarette, nicotine is released from the Acidic substances and becomes a volatile substance and is absorbed quickly by the body.
To understand how nicotine acts on the CNS must be known first as there is communication between nerve cells, called neurons, which carries out this process and how it all begins this mechanism.
Our brain consists of a specialized tissue called the neural tissue and its cells called neurons are connected together to form branches. Neurons are able to generate electrical impulses that are transmitted by a fiber called axon until the end where neurotransmitters are stored. At the ends of these branches there are some cellular substances lodged very close to the synaptic space. To illustrate this process has chosen the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This is hosted on a membranous sacs called synaptic ogm vesicles located at the tip of the axon (1). When an electrical signal reaches the end of the axon vesicles fuse with the wall in the neuron releases acetylcholine merger synaptic space between the axon and dendrites [1] for the next cell (2 .) The neurotransmitter moves across the synapse to the next neuron in this we find le

Friday, February 14, 2014

Dive into these considerations can not forget me begin this premise. Whether working directly on th

REFLECTIONS ON CLEANING painted surfaces. | Unicum
Research Techniques artistic sculpture Cover Story Food Materials and Food restoration techniques of painting and sculpture Ethnography C. and R. Parchment C. and R. C. Wood and R. Contemporary Art Analytical Techniques Technology Technology Interdisciplinary Intervention Training Restoration Painting paa Materials and Techniques artistic techniques reproduction restoration techniques C. and R. Paper C. and R. C. Bone Material and R. Preventive Conservation Painting Materials and Techniques Interview Iconography Conservation of Contemporary paa Art Restoration schematic Restoration Restoration contemporary art ceramics C. and R. Metal C. and R. Sculptural C. and R. Fotogria of (paper) C. Interdisciplinary paa Projects and R. Documentary Monograph conservation-restoration of archaeological conservation Museography matrix tracing Musical Instrument Restoration Conservation xylographic matrix C. and R. Archaeological C. and R. Ethnographic C. and R. C. textile materials and R. Pictorial C. and R. Photo
This article presents a critical review of traditional systems of polychrome surfaces clean at the same time posed proposed new methodologies. It is, moreover, a very interesting and necessary reflection about the toxicity of solvents and standards of conduct to address these types of so delicate and irreversible processes.
This document paa is the result of a request made by Maria Theresa Paolo Cremonesi Orengo, head of the restoration laboratory of the Region of Liguria (Italy), and the author has kindly donated it to be translated and published in our magazine. [1] [2]
Since 1992 I deal with methods of cleaning paintings and polychrome surfaces that try to combine the protection of the health and safety of the operator's workspace with respect paa to the structural integrity of the work. Among the steps taken to promote awareness and use of these methods paa in 1995 I prepared a course for professional development restorative "cleaning materials and methods of polychrome works" course which then brought over forty Italian cities and, more recently, also abroad, thanks to the interest of many individuals and private and public institutions that have given me their confidence, so they occupy all the space in this introduction.
In 1999 on the initiative of the then director of the restoration laboratory of Soprintendenza for artistic and Beni e della Liguria paa Storici Piero Donati, this course was held in Genoa for the restoration laboratories Soprintendenza and restoration of the region. Although we did not have a personal direct Piero Donati was aware of the work that I was developing in the opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD) of Florence, with the launch of a cleaning method for the cross Guglielmo Cathedral of Sarzana, by which he himself had promoted the restoration of the OPD. This "curiosity" paa toward new methods, together with attention to fine art, were the basis for the initiative. The course, which began in the laboratory of Soprintendenza, followed by technical reasons and what was then the laboratory programm e Strutture Culturali Servizio della Liguria, thanks to the availability of Maria Theresa Orengo, was the opportunity to start a collaboration that continues in various paa ways. In particular, the restoration of the region deepened even more improvement in his way of attending other courses on new methods of cleaning, and then putting them into practice in their laboratory activities.
Dive into these considerations can not forget me begin this premise. Whether working directly on the work with our hands, or just talking about it, the feeling is always the same: we all make mistakes (chemist, historian, restaurateur, etc..) If we face the problem from one perspective only competition (eg scientific), not considering other (historical, artistic, etc.).. I'm very aware of this and, consequently, the fact that it can also be applied to the considerations I will then.
Among the many catering operations, cleaning up the image of a work painted seems to be more likely to provoke strong emotions and reactions. Among the many events we remember only the case closer to us in time: the debate about the "readability" the magazine Kermes paa housed in its pages. [3]
In a recent conference dedicated to cleaning [4] have established a well-defined positions. First, paa as emphasized Ciatti, cleaning paa should not be considered as an intervention

Thursday, February 13, 2014

Aromaticity: The atoms C, O, S and N are shown in lowercase letters when you belong to aromatic rin

SMILES | Zoelita's Blog
In chemistry, Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry Specification glue (SMILES) code is a linear molecular description can write all the details, the structure of a molecule using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most editors to generate molecular structures drawn bidimensionalment nomenclature or three-dimensional models.
Atoms: standard glue represented by the abbreviation in brackets can be omitted in C, N, O, P, S and halogens glue in organic subsets. glue If done well, assumed implicit hydrogens. For example, water is SMILE O.
Links: In a SMILE assumed that the chain links are simple but put "=" to express a double bond and a "#" for a triple. Cycles used to close the connectivity between atoms labeling the two atoms linked.
Aromaticity: The atoms C, O, S and N are shown in lowercase letters when you belong to aromatic rings. For example, pyridine is n1ccccc1. The heteroatom (N) represents the pirrole [nH] and for example, glue imidazole written n1c [nH] CC1.
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